Connect with us


Senegal Customs Seize Over $50 Million in Cocaine Shipments



Senegalese customs authorities have intercepted three significant shipments of cocaine in the past five days, totaling over $50 million in estimated value. This surge in drug seizures underscores West Africa’s growing role as a transit hub for cocaine trafficked from Latin America to Europe.

The most substantial of these recent seizures occurred near the border with Mali, where customs officers discovered 264 packets of cocaine, weighing a total of 306.24 kilograms. The drugs were concealed within the ventilation compartment of a refrigerated truck. The estimated value of this haul alone is $40 million.

In another operation conducted in the southern part of Senegal, customs officials intercepted a vehicle from a neighboring Sahel country. Inside, they found 95 packets of cocaine worth $14.2 million. This operation demonstrates the cross-border nature of the drug trafficking networks operating in the region.

A third seizure took place at Blaise Diagne International Airport near Dakar, where 18 kilograms of cocaine, valued at approximately $2.3 million, were discovered in unaccompanied luggage bound for a European Union country.

These recent seizures are part of a broader pattern of increasing drug trafficking activity in Senegal and its neighboring countries, including Guinea, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Mali. These nations have become notable transit zones for cocaine produced in Latin America and destined for European markets.

Earlier this month, Senegalese customs announced several other significant drug busts, including a 1-ton seizure near the Mali border in mid-April. In November, the Senegalese army seized nearly 3 tons of cocaine from a vessel in international waters off the country’s coast.

The escalation of cocaine trafficking through West Africa poses significant challenges for regional security and governance. The large-scale drug seizures reflect the region’s strategic importance in global drug trafficking networks, highlighting the need for enhanced international cooperation and stronger regional enforcement measures.

Senegal’s efforts to combat drug trafficking are crucial in disrupting these networks and preventing the flow of illicit drugs to Europe. However, the scale and frequency of these seizures indicate that traffickers are increasingly using sophisticated methods and routes to evade detection.

The recent spate of cocaine seizures by Senegalese customs highlights the urgent need for robust anti-trafficking strategies and international collaboration. As West Africa remains a key transit point for cocaine, bolstering regional enforcement capabilities and intelligence-sharing will be critical in curbing the flow of illegal drugs and maintaining regional stability.


Report: Highly Potent Opioids Detected in African Drug Markets



Alarming Findings from Sierra Leone and Guinea-Bissau Highlight Emerging Drug Threat

For the first time, traces of highly potent synthetic opioids known as nitazenes have been detected in drug users in Africa. This revelation comes from a report released by the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime (GI-TOC), indicating a worrying trend in the drug markets of Sierra Leone and Guinea-Bissau.

Nitazenes are synthetic opioids that have been prevalent in Western countries and parts of Asia, often linked to overdose deaths due to their extreme potency. Some nitazenes can be up to 100 times more potent than heroin and 10 times more potent than fentanyl. This high potency means even small amounts can lead to significant effects, increasing the risk of overdose and death among users.

The report’s findings are based on chemical testing of a drug known locally as “kush,” which is a derivative of cannabis mixed with synthetic substances like fentanyl, tramadol, and chemicals such as formaldehyde. In Sierra Leone, 83% of the kush samples tested positive for nitazenes, while in Guinea-Bissau, 55% of the samples contained these potent opioids.

The detection of nitazenes in African drug markets is a significant concern. “These results are the first indication that nitazenes have penetrated retail drug markets in Africa,” stated the GI-TOC report. The widespread use of kush, especially among young people, means that many are likely ingesting these dangerous substances without being aware of the severe risks involved.

In response to the growing drug problem, Sierra Leone’s President Julius Maada Bio has declared war on kush, labeling it an epidemic and a national threat. However, the report emphasizes the urgent need for chemical testing equipment to accurately monitor and respond to the illicit drug markets in Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, and the wider subregion.

The presence of nitazenes in African drug markets marks a troubling development in the region’s drug landscape. Immediate and concerted efforts are required to tackle this emerging threat, including the deployment of chemical testing technologies and the development of evidence-based interventions to mitigate the risks posed by these highly potent synthetic opioids.

Continue Reading


The Khat Conundrum in Somaliland: A Comprehensive Analysis



Exploring the Social, Economic, and Health Impacts of Khat and Pathways to Solutions


Khat, a stimulant drug chewed for its euphoric effects, is pervasive in Somaliland, leading to significant social, economic, and health problems. This article delves into the multifaceted impact of khat on families, individual health, finances, and the broader societal implications, while also exploring potential solutions.

Destruction of Families

Marital Strife: The habitual use of khat often results in neglect of family responsibilities and an increase in domestic violence. The drug’s effects can lead to a breakdown in communication and trust between spouses, causing severe marital issues.

Child Neglect: Parents addicted to khat may neglect their children, leading to poor academic performance and emotional distress. The lack of supervision and support can hinder a child’s development and future prospects.

Addiction and Disease

Addiction: Khat use leads to both physical dependence and psychological addiction. Users find it difficult to quit, which exacerbates the cycle of abuse and dependency.

Health Issues:

  • Dental Problems: Chewing khat can lead to severe dental issues, including gum disease and tooth decay.
  • Gastrointestinal Disorders: Chronic use is associated with digestive problems and other gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Mental Health Disorders: Anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues are common among khat users.

Intoxicating Effects

Short-Term Effects: Users experience euphoria and increased sociability. However, these effects are temporary and can lead to compulsive use.

Long-Term Effects: Prolonged use of khat results in insomnia, appetite suppression, and malnutrition. These long-term effects can severely impact overall health and well-being.

Health Impacts

Physical Health:

  • Cardiovascular Issues: Khat use is linked to heart problems, including increased heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Liver Damage: Long-term use can result in significant liver damage.

Mental Health:

  • Cognitive Decline: Chronic khat use can lead to deterioration in cognitive functions.
  • Increased Risk of Psychosis: There is a heightened risk of psychotic episodes among heavy users.

Financial Burden

Individual Finances: The cost of khat puts a significant strain on personal finances, leading to reduced productivity and economic hardship.

Economic Impact: On a larger scale, the widespread use of khat reduces workforce efficiency and increases healthcare costs, affecting the nation’s economy.

Scale of the Problem

Widespread Use: Khat is culturally accepted and widely used among men and youth in Somaliland. This cultural acceptance exacerbates the issue and makes intervention challenging.

Government Response: Efforts to regulate khat use face numerous challenges. Policies and enforcement mechanisms are often inadequate to curb the problem effectively.

Comparison: Chewer vs. Non-Chewer


  • Chewer: Faces poor dental health, malnutrition, and high stress levels.
  • Non-Chewer: Generally enjoys better overall health.


  • Chewer: Experiences financial strain from the cost of khat.
  • Non-Chewer: Maintains financial stability.

Social Life:

  • Chewer: Suffers from strained family relations and social stigma.
  • Non-Chewer: Enjoys healthier relationships.

Solutions and Strategies

Education and Awareness: Public campaigns on the health risks of khat and community engagement are crucial. Educating the population can help reduce the demand for khat.

Rehabilitation Programs: Establishing support systems for addiction treatment and providing counseling services are essential steps. Rehabilitation can help users break free from the cycle of addiction.

Policy Implementation: Stricter regulations and enforcement are needed. Supporting alternative livelihoods can provide viable options for those economically dependent on khat trade.


Addressing the khat problem in Somaliland requires a comprehensive approach involving education, healthcare, and policy reforms. Collaborative efforts between the government, communities, and international bodies are vital for creating meaningful change and improving the lives of those affected by khat.

The Poisoned Chalice: Battling the Khat Epidemic in Somaliland

Continue Reading


Egyptian Woman Arrested for Attempting to Drug and Sell Child’s Organs Online



Shocking Revelation Unveils Gruesome Plot in Port Said

An Egyptian woman was apprehended in Port Said while allegedly attempting to drug her child and sell his organs to an online trafficking network, echoing a recent incident that shook the nation’s conscience.

In a disturbing turn of events, Egyptian media reports reveal a harrowing plot unfolding in Port Said Governorate, where a mother, identified as “H.TH.D,” was apprehended by security services for attempting to drug her own child with the intent of extracting and selling his internal organs on the internet.

According to investigations into “Case No. 3593 of 2024 Misdemeanors of Flowers,” the woman, who is reportedly divorced and has two children, contacted individuals on social media known to traffic in human organs. She allegedly sent them photographs and videos of her child, Muhammad (8 years old), while he was completely naked, at the behest of these online contacts.

Further revelations emerged as it was uncovered that the mother complied with requests to administer narcotic medications to sedate her child. Subsequently, the child fell into a state of severe fatigue, necessitating his transfer to a hospital. Medical examination revealed that the child had received an overdose of the drug, prompting hospital authorities to alert security authorities.

During interrogations, the woman confessed to communicating with individuals online who instructed her to drug her child and photograph him in compromising positions. She also admitted to intending to sell her child’s organs to these online contacts.

This shocking incident evokes memories of a recent gruesome crime in the Shubra area of Qalyubia Governorate, where a young child was found mutilated, his internal organs removed and placed in a bag beside his body. Investigations into that case uncovered a similar motive – trafficking in human organs.

The apprehension of the woman in Port Said underscores the urgent need for greater vigilance against the heinous crime of human organ trafficking, as authorities work tirelessly to dismantle such networks and protect the most vulnerable members of society from exploitation.

Continue Reading


The Devastating Impact of Khat: A Comprehensive Analysis of Somaliland’s Crisis



Unveiling the Religious, Health, Economic, and Environmental Ravages of Khat Consumption in Somaliland

By Kasim Abdulkadir:

In the tranquil streets of Somaliland, an invisible enemy lurks, threatening the essence of society and corroding its foundations. This enemy is none other than Khat, a narcotic plant wreaking havoc on the religious, health, economic, moral, hygienic, and environmental spheres of Somaliland.

  1. Religious Problems of Khat: Khat’s insidious infiltration into the societal fabric of Somaliland has unleashed a myriad of religious challenges. The gluttonous consumption of Khat undermines the completeness of faith, diverting individuals from their religious obligations. Fasting, the cornerstone of religious practice, is undermined by Khat consumption, hindering individuals from fulfilling their sacred duties.
  2. Health Problems of Khat: The detrimental impact of Khat on public health cannot be overstated. From neurological impairment to digestive disturbances, Khat inflicts severe harm on the human body. Its consumption weakens the immune system, rendering individuals susceptible to illness and posing grave risks to their overall well-being.
  3. Financial Problems of Khat: Khat’s pervasive influence extends to the economic realm, paralyzing communities and draining resources. The economic paralysis induced by Khat consumption disrupts livelihoods and perpetuates cycles of poverty. Scarce financial resources are squandered on Khat, exacerbating economic inequalities and stifling progress.
  4. Moral Problems of Khat: In a society anchored in the principles of Islam, Khat engenders moral degradation, eroding the fabric of social cohesion. The vile behavior exhibited by Khat users stands in stark contrast to the moral virtues espoused by Islam, perpetuating discord and disharmony within communities.
  5. Hygienic Problems of Khat: Khat’s consumption fosters neglect of personal hygiene, exacerbating societal challenges and perpetuating unhygienic living conditions. The relentless pursuit of Khat leaves individuals devoid of the inclination to maintain cleanliness, further exacerbating public health concerns.
  6. Family Problems of Khat: The scourge of Khat precipitates familial discord, tearing apart the fabric of familial bonds and disrupting domestic tranquility. Marital strife, fueled by the financial strain of Khat consumption, destabilizes households and undermines familial cohesion.
  7. Environmental Problems of Khat: As Khat consumption proliferates, it exacts a heavy toll on the environment, polluting ecosystems and despoiling landscapes. The wanton disposal of Khat waste contaminates soil and disrupts natural habitats, threatening biodiversity and compromising environmental sustainability.

Conclusion: The pernicious influence of Khat permeates every facet of Somaliland society, leaving devastation in its wake. Urgent measures are imperative to combat this existential threat and safeguard the future of Somaliland. Only through concerted efforts to address the religious, health, economic, moral, hygienic, and environmental ramifications of Khat consumption can Somaliland reclaim its vitality and resilience.

The Poisoned Chalice: Battling the Khat Epidemic in Somaliland

In the face of adversity, Somaliland must unite to confront the scourge of Khat and forge a path towards renewal and prosperity.

Continue Reading


Europe’s Cocaine Kings: The Rise of Balkan Gangsters as Top Suppliers



In recent years, Europe has witnessed a surge in cocaine consumption, with the drug’s availability reaching unprecedented levels. Behind this booming trade lies a network of organized crime groups from the Balkans, who have emerged as Europe’s top cocaine suppliers.


This special report delves into the intricate web of criminality that fuels the continent’s cocaine epidemic, tracing the origins, operations, and global connections of Balkan gangsters in the illicit drug trade.

The roots of Balkan organized crime can be traced back to the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Amid the chaos of war and political upheaval, criminal networks flourished, capitalizing on the breakdown of law and order to establish lucrative enterprises in smuggling, trafficking, and extortion. Over time, these criminal syndicates expanded their operations beyond national borders, infiltrating Europe’s underworld and diversifying their illicit activities.

Driven by insatiable demand and staggering profits, Balkan gangsters have carved out a dominant role in Europe’s cocaine trade. Leveraging their extensive networks and strategic alliances with South American cartels, these criminal organizations oversee the smuggling of vast quantities of cocaine into Europe through a variety of routes, including maritime, air, and land channels. From clandestine ports in the Balkans to bustling European cities, the flow of cocaine has become a lucrative and highly profitable enterprise for Balkan gangs.

The rise of Balkan gangsters as major players in the cocaine trade has not gone unnoticed by international law enforcement agencies. Through sophisticated intelligence-gathering efforts and collaborative operations, authorities have uncovered the intricate web of connections linking Balkan crime syndicates to their counterparts in South America, Africa, and beyond. These global connections enable Balkan gangs to orchestrate large-scale cocaine shipments and evade detection by law enforcement agencies, posing a formidable challenge to efforts aimed at disrupting their operations.

In their quest for dominance in the cocaine market, Balkan gangsters have resorted to violence, intimidation, and coercion to protect their interests and eliminate rivals. From targeted assassinations to brutal turf wars, the criminal underworld of the Balkans is characterized by a culture of brutality and impunity. Law enforcement agencies across Europe have struggled to contain the escalating violence fueled by rivalries between competing gangs vying for control of lucrative drug markets.

The ascendancy of Balkan gangsters as Europe’s top cocaine suppliers poses significant challenges for law enforcement agencies, policymakers, and society at large. The unchecked proliferation of cocaine has fueled addiction, organized crime, and violence, undermining public safety and social cohesion. Efforts to combat the cocaine trade must address the root causes of demand, dismantle criminal networks, and enhance international cooperation to disrupt the flow of illicit drugs into Europe.

In conclusion, the rise of Balkan gangsters as Europe’s top cocaine suppliers underscores the complexity and magnitude of the continent’s drug problem. As authorities grapple with the challenges posed by organized crime, concerted efforts are needed to tackle the underlying drivers of drug trafficking, strengthen law enforcement capabilities, and promote international cooperation to combat the scourge of cocaine addiction and its devastating consequences on individuals, communities, and societies across Europe.

Continue Reading


Nigeria’s Senate Proposes Death Penalty for Drug Trafficking



Nigeria’s Senate has introduced a controversial bill proposing the death penalty for drug trafficking in an effort to combat the country’s persistent drug-related issues. The legislation aims to address the significant social harm caused by drug trafficking and its links to organized crime. If passed, the bill would impose severe penalties on individuals involved in drug trafficking activities, reflecting the government’s determination to tackle this pressing issue.


The Impact of Drug Trafficking: A Menace to Society

Drug trafficking remains a global scourge, wreaking havoc on individuals, communities, and nations alike. Nigeria’s recent proposal to impose the death penalty for drug trafficking underscores the severity of this issue and the urgent need for effective solutions. Beyond legislative measures, it is crucial to understand the multifaceted impact of drug trafficking and the underlying factors driving this illicit trade.

Destruction of Lives and Communities:

Drug trafficking not only fuels addiction but also devastates the lives of individuals and communities. Substance abuse leads to a myriad of health problems, including addiction, overdose, and the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Families are torn apart, and communities suffer from increased crime rates and social instability. The toll on public health systems and social services is immense, straining already limited resources and hindering development efforts.

Fueling Organized Crime:

Behind the lucrative drug trade lie powerful criminal networks that exploit vulnerable populations and undermine the rule of law. Drug cartels and trafficking syndicates engage in violence, corruption, and coercion to protect their interests and expand their operations. The illicit proceeds from drug trafficking fund other criminal activities, including human trafficking, arms smuggling, and terrorism, further destabilizing societies and perpetuating cycles of violence.

The Role of Self-Serving Interests:

At the heart of the drug trade are individuals driven by greed and self-interest, willing to profit at the expense of others’ lives and well-being. These individuals prioritize financial gain over ethical considerations, exploiting systemic vulnerabilities and preying on the vulnerabilities of others. Their actions perpetuate a vicious cycle of exploitation and suffering, perpetuating the cycle of drug addiction and violence.

Addressing the Root Causes:

To effectively combat drug trafficking, it is essential to address the root causes driving this illicit trade. This requires a comprehensive approach that encompasses prevention, treatment, and law enforcement measures. Investing in education, healthcare, and social services can empower communities and reduce the demand for illicit drugs. Strengthening law enforcement and international cooperation is crucial for dismantling trafficking networks and holding perpetrators accountable.


The proposal to impose the death penalty for drug trafficking in Nigeria highlights the gravity of the issue and the need for decisive action. However, addressing the root causes of drug trafficking requires a concerted effort from governments, civil society, and the international community. By tackling the underlying drivers of drug trafficking and prioritizing the well-being of individuals and communities, we can work towards a future free from the devastating impact of drugs on society.

Continue Reading


Research Report: The Khat Epidemic in Somaliland



The Khat Epidemic in Somaliland: A Socioeconomic and Health Crisis

By Kasim Abdulkadir:

Assessing the Impact of Khat Consumption on Public Health and Society

This research report explores the Khat epidemic in Somaliland, examining its socioeconomic and health impacts, historical context, and potential solutions to mitigate its adverse effects.

1. Introduction

Khat (Catha edulis), a plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, has been widely consumed in Somaliland for centuries. The leaves of the Khat plant contain psychoactive compounds, notably cathinone and cathine, which produce stimulating effects similar to those of amphetamines. While Khat chewing is culturally ingrained in Somaliland, its widespread use has escalated into an epidemic with profound socioeconomic and health ramifications.

2. Historical Context of Khat in Somaliland

Khat consumption in Somaliland has historical roots, traditionally used in social and religious contexts. It has been viewed as a social lubricant and a means to facilitate extended periods of work and worship. Over time, the practice has become more pervasive, cutting across various strata of society. The historical tolerance of Khat use has complicated efforts to address its adverse effects.

3. Chemical Composition and Effects of Khat

Chemical Composition

Khat leaves contain:

  • Cathinone: A potent stimulant with effects akin to amphetamine.
  • Cathine: A milder stimulant.


  • Short-term: Increased alertness, euphoria, and hyperactivity.
  • Long-term: Insomnia, anorexia, psychological dependence, and potential for severe mental health issues.

4. Socioeconomic Impact

Economic Dependency

Khat trade constitutes a significant economic activity in Somaliland, providing livelihoods for farmers, traders, and transporters. However, this dependency undermines economic diversification and sustainability.

Social Consequences

  • Family Dynamics: Financial strain due to Khat expenditures often leads to neglect of family needs, contributing to domestic strife.
  • Productivity: Chronic use impairs productivity, as users spend significant time chewing Khat at the expense of engaging in economically productive activities.

Financial Implications

The cost of Khat consumption diverts household income from essential needs such as food, education, and healthcare, perpetuating a cycle of poverty.

5. Health Implications

Physical Health

  • Gastrointestinal Issues: Chronic Khat use is associated with digestive problems.
  • Cardiovascular Effects: Increased risk of hypertension and heart disease due to the stimulant properties of Khat.

Mental Health

  • Psychological Dependence: Users develop a dependency that impacts their mental health, leading to anxiety, depression, and in severe cases, psychosis.
  • Community Health: The widespread use of Khat exacerbates public health challenges, straining healthcare resources.

Public Health Concerns

  • The health sector in Somaliland faces significant challenges in managing the adverse effects of Khat use, with limited resources to address the growing epidemic.

6. Regulatory and Legal Framework

Legal Status

While Khat is banned in many countries, it remains legal and unregulated in Somaliland, complicating efforts to curb its use.

Policy Challenges

  • Lack of Enforcement: Even where regulations exist, enforcement is weak.
  • Cultural Acceptance: Deep-rooted cultural acceptance of Khat poses a significant barrier to implementing effective control measures.

7. Current Interventions and Challenges

Existing Interventions

  • Public Awareness Campaigns: Efforts to educate the public on the dangers of Khat use.
  • Healthcare Initiatives: Programs aimed at treating addiction and managing health complications.


  • Resource Constraints: Limited financial and human resources to implement and sustain interventions.
  • Cultural Resistance: Societal acceptance of Khat use hampers the effectiveness of public health campaigns.

8. Recommendations

Policy and Regulation

  • Stricter Regulations: Enact and enforce stricter regulations on Khat cultivation, distribution, and consumption.
  • Alternative Livelihood Programs: Develop programs to support alternative livelihoods for those economically dependent on Khat trade.

Public Health Interventions

  • Comprehensive Health Programs: Implement comprehensive health programs to address both physical and mental health issues associated with Khat use.
  • Community Engagement: Engage community leaders in creating culturally sensitive public health messages.

Education and Awareness

  • Education Campaigns: Increase public awareness through education campaigns highlighting the dangers of Khat use and promoting healthy lifestyles.
  • School Programs: Integrate anti-Khat education into school curricula to deter youth from starting the habit.

9. Conclusion

The Khat epidemic in Somaliland represents a complex challenge intertwining cultural, economic, and health dimensions. Addressing this issue requires a multifaceted approach that combines stringent regulation, public health initiatives, and community engagement. By implementing comprehensive strategies, Somaliland can mitigate the adverse effects of Khat and promote a healthier, more sustainable future for its citizens.

10. References

  1. Duresso, S. W., et al. (2011). Khat: A socio-economic and health perspective.
  2. Drug and Alcohol Foundation. (2024). Khat facts.
  3. Hassan, N. A., et al. (2015). Khat chewing in Yemen: Turning over a new leaf.
  4. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). (2024). Drug profiles: Khat.
  5. ScienceDirect. (2024). Neuroscience: Khat.

This research report provides a comprehensive overview of the Khat epidemic in Somaliland, exploring its historical context, chemical effects, socioeconomic impact, health implications, and the regulatory landscape. The report concludes with actionable recommendations to address the crisis, emphasizing the need for a holistic and culturally sensitive approach.



Research on khat spans various disciplines, including health, social sciences, and economics. Below is a list of significant studies and publications that have examined different aspects of khat use, its effects, and its implications:

Health and Medical Research

  1. “Khat: Pharmacological and Medical Aspects” – This comprehensive review published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology covers the pharmacology, toxicology, and medical implications of khat use.
  2. “Khat use: a literature review” by Neil C. M. Carrier – Published in the Journal of Substance Abuse, this paper provides a detailed review of existing literature on the health impacts of khat use.
  3. “The impact of khat chewing on health: a comprehensive review” – Published in the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, this review discusses the various health impacts of khat, from psychological effects to physical health concerns.
  4. “Neuropsychiatric effects of khat: a review” – This article in the African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies explores the neurological and psychiatric effects associated with khat use.
  5. “Khat and Oral Health: An Epidemiological Study” – Published in BMC Oral Health, this study investigates the effects of khat chewing on dental and periodontal health.

Socioeconomic and Cultural Research

  1. “Khat in Somaliland: A Study on Trade and Consumption” – This report by the Somaliland Development Research Institute examines the economic and social impact of khat in Somaliland.
  2. “Khat: Social Harms and Legislation” – Published by the International Journal of Drug Policy, this study reviews the social harms associated with khat use and the various legislative responses across different countries.
  3. “Economic Impact of Khat on Livelihoods in East Africa” – This report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) analyzes how khat cultivation and trade affect the economies and livelihoods in East African communities.

Legal and Regulatory Studies

  1. “Khat: A Review of Its Social and Legal Status in the UK” – Published by the UK Home Office, this review covers the legal status of khat in the UK and its implications for public policy.
  2. “Regulating Khat in the European Union: A Complex Policy Challenge” – This article in the European Journal of Public Health discusses the various regulatory approaches to khat within the EU member states.

Intervention and Public Health Studies

  1. “Public Health Strategies for Khat Control: Lessons from Tobacco Control” – Published in Global Health Action, this paper suggests public health strategies for mitigating khat use, drawing parallels with tobacco control measures.
  2. “Community-Based Interventions for Khat Abuse in Ethiopia” – This study, published in the Journal of Community Health, evaluates the effectiveness of community-led interventions in reducing khat abuse.

Comprehensive Books

  1. “Khat in the Horn of Africa: Historical and Ethnographic Perspectives” by Susan Beckerleg – This book provides an in-depth historical and ethnographic study of khat in the Horn of Africa, including Somaliland.
  2. “The Khat Controversy: Stimulating the Debate on Drugs” by David Anderson and Neil Carrier – This book delves into the debates surrounding khat use, exploring its cultural, economic, and health dimensions.

These studies and publications provide a robust foundation for understanding the multifaceted nature of khat use, its implications, and the efforts to address its challenges. They reflect the extensive research conducted across various fields and regions, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the khat epidemic.



Countries That Have Banned Khat:

  1. United States:
    • Year of Ban: 1993
    • Classification: Schedule I controlled substance (equivalent to Class A), indicating it has a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use.
  2. United Kingdom:
    • Year of Ban: 2014
    • Classification: Class C drug, which includes substances considered less harmful but still illegal to possess, produce, or supply.
  3. Canada:
    • Year of Ban: 1997
    • Classification: Schedule IV controlled substance, indicating it has a low potential for abuse and is primarily subject to restrictions on importation and sale.
  4. Netherlands:
    • Year of Ban: 2012
    • Classification: Classified under the Opium Act, making it illegal to import, export, or possess.
  5. Germany:
    • Year of Ban: 1997
    • Classification: Controlled under the Narcotics Act, making it illegal to possess, distribute, or cultivate.
  6. France:
    • Year of Ban: 1995
    • Classification: Classified as a narcotic, making it illegal to possess, use, or distribute.
  7. Norway:
    • Year of Ban: 1989
    • Classification: Controlled under the Narcotics Act, making it illegal to possess, use, or distribute.
  8. Sweden:
    • Year of Ban: 1989
    • Classification: Listed as a narcotic, making it illegal to possess, use, or distribute.
  9. Australia:
    • Year of Ban: 1997
    • Classification: Classified under the Customs Act, making it illegal to import or possess.
  10. New Zealand:
    • Year of Ban: 2008
    • Classification: Classified as a Class C drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act.
  11. Saudi Arabia:
    • Year of Ban: 1983
    • Classification: Classified as an illegal narcotic.
  12. Eritrea:
    • Year of Ban: 1994
    • Classification: Treated as an illegal substance under national law.
  13. Tanzania:
    • Year of Ban: 2014
    • Classification: Classified as an illegal narcotic.

Countries That Have Downgraded or Classified Khat as a Mild Drug:

  1. Ethiopia:
    • Status: Legal and widely used; classified as a cultural substance with traditional use.
  2. Yemen:
    • Status: Legal and culturally accepted; not classified as a controlled substance.
  3. Djibouti:
    • Status: Legal; khat consumption is widespread and culturally ingrained.
  4. Somalia:
    • Status: Legal and widely consumed; cultural acceptance as a traditional substance.
  5. Israel:
    • Status: Legal; classified as a mild stimulant with traditional use among Yemeni Jewish communities.
  6. Kenya:
    • Status: Legal; considered a mild stimulant, with significant economic and cultural importance.
  7. Uganda:
    • Status: Legal but regulated; khat is controlled to some extent but not banned.

Summary of Classifications:

  • Class I / Schedule I (High Risk, Strictly Controlled): USA, Saudi Arabia, Germany, France
  • Class C (Less Harmful, Still Illegal): UK, New Zealand
  • Schedule IV (Low Risk, Restricted): Canada
  • Controlled Under Narcotics Acts: Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Australia

The classification of khat varies significantly by country, reflecting differences in cultural acceptance, economic dependency, and public health policies. While some nations have classified it as a dangerous narcotic on par with substances like heroin and cocaine, others have opted to treat it as a mild stimulant with cultural and traditional significance. This disparity highlights the complex nature of drug regulation and the influence of social and economic factors on policy decisions.

Continue Reading

Most Viewed

You cannot copy content of this page